The Awakening: The wedding chain.
In this text you can observe a husband and his wife at the end of the XIX century. The husband is a wealthy New Orleans merchant and this is why he controls everyone in his house and more particularly his wife, Edna. Mr. Pontellier often finds excuses to leave the house and go to clubs, for example it says here « The roast was in some way not his fancy ». The use of « some way » means that he doesn’t even try to find good arguments to leave. We can suggest that his excuses are very vague, not precise which can express his lack of effort to find a valid justification, or even that as a husband, no substantial justification is required. When Edna’s husband decides to leave he says « Good night », this can suggest the idea that he is not coming back for the night which can raise the question of cheating, of him having an affair with another woman. Here, we can see that there is absolutely no affection between the two of them as he doesn’t even call her « dear » or « darling ». Mr. Pontellier doesn’t even have to tell Edna to stay home and this can be explained because firstly he doesn’t care about her and secondly he knows she will not leave because he knows the idea of leaving never crossed her mind. Furthermore, at the time it would have been dangerous for a woman to get out alone because it could have been considered as an act of prostitution and Edna’s good education taught her not to do anything against her husband’s will. Women like her are educated so efficiently that their husbands do not even need to tell them to stay home and wait. In this text, the main idea of Mr. Pontellier is that he is a disrespectful and careless husband. Also, the fact that he leaves Edna to finish her dinner by herself is rude. Clearly, the rules of marriage do not mean the same thing whether you are a man or a woman.
What catches the eye of the reader in this story is the fact that Edna seems to be on her way to becoming a less submissive woman. As a matter of fact, in the second line of the text, she says that she “did not mind” the scorched taste of the fish so this line can express a different meaning as well, that she didn’t mind contradicting him, which reflects the first phase of her rebellion against her unloving husband. In the first paragraph, the fact that the word « returned » is used can also hint out her rebellion as it can indicate a reply that is more aggressive than other times. ‘Indifferently’ means that she didn’t care what he was saying so we can say that Edna is bitter towards her husband. We could imagine that Edna is trapped in her own marriage so metaphorically, she could be a prisoner in her own marriage. This idea can relate to the title « The wedding chain » as chains can suggest the idea of prison and that the chains are preventing her from escaping this marriage, from running to her own freedom. In addition, the suggestion of money can be a relation with the first text we studied, from The Taming of the Shrew, as it says that the husband is the one who takes care of everything money wise, he is like the businessman and only breadwinner of the house. Both texts develop the same idea.
In the last part of the text, the sentence « But that evening Edna finished her dinner alone » suggests the change of things, suggests the start of Edna’s rebellion against this miserable marriage which is emphasized with the use of the word « But ». The idea that she finishes her dinner alone could also be a warning that if she doesn’t escape from this unhappy arranged marriage, she will end up eating alone every single day, as a daily routine as if she was finishing her wedding by herself. It relates to the idea of loneliness. Edna has a rushing feeling of anger which is shown with the alliteration in [f] line 27 « Her face was flushed and her eyes flamed with some inward fire that lighted them ». She has a desire to destroy something so she decides to break a vase but this can also propose the idea that she wants to destroy this marriage. The word « passion » can put forward the significance that she needs to find her passion somewhere else. A passion can also mean something that you can’t resist so that could suggest the idea that she can’t resist the thought of breaking her marriage apart, or that she still does not know better than destroying, in the sense that a more “modern” and financially independent woman would surely ask for a divorce and decide for a new life away from this one.
Edna’s little rebellion is put to a stop by her own maid, she stops from going forward with this disobedience. She interrupts Edna’s little moment and gives her back her ring that she threw on the ground earlier. Here, we can say that the maid symbolizes society that doesn’t want the women to rebel against their own husbands; they want them to respect their wedding. Society is organized in such a way that, as we said before, life can be unsafe for single women, as is suggested by the maid’s metaphoric admonition line 44 “you might some of the glass in your feet”. This whole situation can also drip with irony as the maid is a person from a lower class than Edna yet she still manages to control Edna just as her husband does. Edna can be supervised by anyone even by someone who is from a lower social status, which is ironic to the extent that when it comes to limiting women, everything goes, including the admonition of other women, however socially inferior they may be. Katherina did it too in The Shrew, but she was socially equal to the women she was lecturing. We can imagine that if the husband was viewing this scene right now, he would have felt proud of the maid as it is a woman controlling another woman. The maid could be represented as the perfect woman to the husband’s eyes, it’s just like a dream. Edna’s rebellion can have a relation with the title of the short story, « The Awakening » as it’s just as if she had been sleeping all this time until the idea of rebellion crashed through her mind as if she had awaken from her long sleep. Unfortunately, however fully aware of her situation she may be, neither she nor society are ready for the great changes that are needed, and her rebellion remains superficial.
By Jade, Pearl, Elrick & Lucie-Maï. Posted by Lucy-Maï.
“A Girl in Winter” was written by Phillip Larkin in 1947. It’s the story of Catherine, a young woman travelling to Britain by sea. She is a war refugee. A young man, Robin, must welcome her there. We are going to see that, in this extract, the author shows that the woman was generally dependant of the man at this time and how important physical appearances were, and still are.
The first lines describe her suitcase: we are told that all is perfectly ordered. However, the narrator insists too much on that: he repeats several times that “everything [is] in order”, as if the young lady was not used to being so organized and methodical. It can mean that the meeting with this man changes her habits.
Then we can observe in lines 6 and 7 “Robin had arranged to meet her”. This is very significant because it shows that the young man organized the whole meeting and she just accepted it. After that comes the description of the photo Robin sent her.
“It was not a question to which she gave much thought” (about Robin’s appearance): it shows that Catherine had a very strict education which tells her not to turn around boys or even to wonder what they look like. Her education is very oppressive so she doesn’t imagine having a relation with Robin.
Moreover, when she does think about his looks, the expression “The typical English face with projecting teeth” shows the young woman thought of Robin as a conventional man. It reinforces the idea of her not being educated to think he might be attractive. Nevertheless, the expression “in this she had been wrong” shows she finds him more attractive than what she thought.
When the narrator explains that “rather to her surprise, she had shown [Robin’s picture] to nobody except her parents”, the words “rather to her surprise” evoke the fact that she does not find Robin unattractive. However, if she is surprised to find herself attracted to him and if she doesn’t show it to anybody, it’s because it’s not like her to show off. This is because of her education which oppresses her and tells her to abstain from such ideas. To put it differently, she is “surprised” to realize she’s attracted to Robin because she doesn’t know herself well, her education oppressing her and her feelings. It’s a part of her she didn’t expect.She still showed it to her parents because she is honest and she fears to make them suspicious by hiding it.
The photo Catherine sends back to him shows her in a white dress with “hair drawn severely back”. White can be considered as a symbol of how pure she wants to appear. “Severely” can evoke the fact that she needs to look strict to be respected, as for her ordered luggage. Contrary to Robin who looks relaxed but can still be respected because he’s a man, Catherine must look severe to obtain respect because she is a woman.
The young lady sent a “conventional photo”; this means conformity: to be accepted by anyone you must be conventional. The white dress also was conventional at the time. All of this can mean that, as she knows nobody in Britain and Robin is her only chance, she tries to please him so that he accepts her and that she can be trusted.
We can see Robin is outgoing because he is relaxed and is not serious about his appearances: he’s the total contrary of Catherine. We can observe as well that Robin sent the first the photo: it can evoke the tradition of the boy taking the first step, and also again the fact that he is organizing the whole meeting. What also catches the reader’s attention is the absence of vivid colors and of sensuality in Catherine’s picture, as further confirmation of her repressed personality.
Then, when Catherine approaches the coast, she panics. The narrator says “All had been arranged so precisely. Yet, she could not help herself stirring uneasily”: there is no point in stressing, as all is ordered, but still she panics. She doesn’t know Robin so she is mistrustful. However, if she panics for nothing, it means that Robin is not the one to be mistrusted but her. Indeed, the reader is led to understand that the sense of discipline and order displayed by the contents of her suitcase does not last very long when Catherine is tested.
To conclude, we can say this text shows very well how women and men relations were considered and supposed to be at the time, whether it was love or a simple meeting. Either way, the man is always the one in charge, preparing and doing everything, and the woman is depicted as dependent on him, following and playing a much less important role, if any.
Milena, Hippolyte, Babylone & Anais. Posted by Hippolyte.
Eveline is a short story written by James Joyce in 1914.
Eveline is a 19 year old woman who still lives with her brother and father, and works at a shop. The short story reveals that her father is violent and that before her mother died, she made her a promise “The promise to her mother, her promise to keep the home together as long as she could” l.26.
At the beginning of the passage, Frank is presented, through Eveline’s eyes, as a very kind, open hearted man and suggests that Eveline wants to leave her painful life at home and go away with Frank to Buenos Ayres. Eveline seems to think that the air is pure there and people would treat her just like she deserves to be treated, with respect.
The whole story seems to be about her, making a big decision either to go and break her mother’s promise by leaving with Frank or else staying at home. Later in the text we understand that Frank may not be as perfect as she seems to think l.45 “he seizes her hand” “come!”. Here we can associate Frank with her father giving her orders and telling her what she must or not do (the verb “seize” is quite violent after all). Maybe she’s scared that Frank would later behave like her father does. Perhaps in the same way the father did to Eveline’s mother. He has organized everything: “She was to go away”, and she does not have much power to decide anything for herself. No matter what decision Eveline makes, in both ways a man has control over her life, they both control her. She has no agency.
The references to air in the passage could be a metaphor for her life. We realize that where she is right now is a place where the air is “dusty”, not pure, and that she’s used to it: “she knew the air” l.24. We can associate that to the routine of her sad life. Dublin the city, and her family life are suffocating her.
But in Buenos Ayres, which literally means good air, she might have access to purer, cleaner air. She sees Buenos Aires as an opportunity to begin a new life, where people would respect her. In Dublin she’s “inhaling the odour of dusty cretonne”. In the other place she would in a way breathe again.
From lines 10 to 21, we are in her thoughts, she’s desperately hoping for a better future: “but in her new home, in a distant unknown country, it would not be like that.” “Then she would get married”; “people would treat her with respect then.” Although on l.28 reality catches up with her: “She stood up in a sudden impulse of terror. Escape!” It is not clear whether she is terrified of her current life and wants to escape, or whether the very idea of escape is what terrifies her. “Escape” is placed at the end of the sentence, on its own, just after “terror”. The implication is that no matter what she decides, she will always be trapped.
We also notice thanks to the text that she is religious and has a strong relationship with God. If she breaks her promise to her mother she’s afraid of betraying God as well as her mother. Eveline’s afraid to go to hell for this sin. In a moment of hesitation she immediately prays and asks God what to do, either to stay home or to go. L.39 “she prayed to God to direct her, to show her what was her duty.” “She kept moving her lips in silent prayer”. In this, she mirrors her mother’s final actions before she dies, and this perhaps indicates that religion is just another element of control, suffocating her just as much as the air, her father, and Frank.
There is a lot of imagery in this text, which increases Eveline’s feelings and sensations.
L.48 “Amid the seas she sent a cry of anguish!” She’s amid the seas, crying is useless because nobody can hear her, no one can help her. It is as though she is drowning (metaphorically, in her sad life).
L.45 “As a bell clanged upon her heart”. This metaphor might at first suggest that God has answered her request and that she finally knows what she has to do. Of course, there is no real bell but it’s like an alarm which rings into Eveline in order to remind her of what choice to take. The bell can also be associated with church bells which chime for weddings, but also for funerals, the bell almost sounds like the knell of death. Something is dying, whether it be her hopes for a new life or her unborn love for Frank. The presence of death is also palpable l.39 “the boat blew a long mournful whistle into the mist”: we can compare the mist to Eveline’s deafness when Frank is telling her how beautiful her life will be with him. Perhaps it also indicates her deafness towards Frank himself.
L.38 “out of the maze” suggests she is completely lost and unable to find her way out. It finds an echo l.32, with “the swaying crowd”, a metaphor for Eveline’s undecided, wavering mind; like the crowd she is swaying, hesitating between two decisions. She is lost, confused.
L.14, the simile between her mother and her, (and more specially, between her mother’s life and her own life)”She would not be treated as her mother” shows that Eveline’s mother had a negative and hard life, and never received any respect. This sentence suggests something about the relationship that the mother and the father had: a relationship of domination which Eveline wants to flee. This simile also shows us Eveline’s desire for independence and the modal “would” conveys the sense of her determination, that is for the time being.
L.19, there is a short enumeration, talking about Frank in a very positive way, “Frank was very kind, manly, open-hearted”. For Eveline, at this moment, Frank is a perfect person and this enumeration can reflect her idealization of him as an honest, “frank” gentleman.
She expects so much of their relationship that she doesn’t see his bad side.
L.51, “like a helpless animal” is another simile evoking just how vulnerable Eveline is. If she is a “helpless” animal, then Frank could be a predator.
Reading between the lines, we might think that Frank, whose name suggests openness and honesty is not as frank and sincere as he appears. Buenos Ayres is actually a well-known city of prostitution, where women came and went. “She was to take the night boat to be his wife and live with him in Buenos Ayres”: the structure of this sentence suggests she cannot really be sure he is really going to marry her. Likewise, on l29, we might see an irony in the sentence “Frank would have her” since this can mean that he will look after her, but it can also mean that he wants to “have” her sexually. Frank is also full of clichés, which may also indicate he is not so sincere.
Finally, it is interesting that although Frank’s words are given in direct speech at the end of the story, Eveline’s remain in indirect speech, in other words, unspoken words. Her paralysis is complete. It reflects the incapacity of a young woman of the early 20th century to free herself from the burden of society's judgment "what would they say of her?". Eveline had the opportunity to decide for herself and escape, but her sense of social and religious "duty" prevails over her just desire for emancipation.
Julie, Imen & Cara. Posted by Cara.
THIS IS THE FINAL PART OF THE ORAL PRESENTATION, ADD IT TO THE FIRST TWO COMMENTARIES BY ELIOTT AND JEAN.
At the end of the passage, lines 10 and 11 are going together. A comparison is made between the servitude due to a prince and the duty of a woman towards her husband.
Indeed, the woman is presented as a "subject" (line 10) and the husband is presented as a "prince" (line 10/11 prince/husband). This idea is reinforced at line 13 by the words "they should kneel" and by line 15 where it is said that the women "are bound to serve and obey", suggesting that this obedience is something natural, that they are born with it, whereas it is merely the result of education.
Furthermore, line 13, "war" and "peace" are opposed to one another as different consequences of women's comportment: obedience would allow peace and insubordination would bring war. Implicitly, if many wives are concerned, the addition of individual wars may lead to a sort of civil war, which means that such women are labeled as dangerous for society.
However, I think we cannot talk about peace in case of submission. In fact, submission implies the violence of the husband towards the woman. And if the woman is finally submitted, it is just a won war, and in war there is no love.
In conclusion, the marital relationship described by the woman is reduced to a relation of power, made legitimate as it was decided by God.
The last 4 lines, to "I am ashamed..." until "obey" reveal that all women are not like that. The spoke person's opinion and the sentence "I am ashamed that women are so simple" reveal that this woman is an obedient woman. She speaks as a sexist man would, which is the ultimate form of submission as her husband does not need to brainwash other women, she takes care of it. (SOE)
This extract is from one of William Shakespeare's famous plays, 'The Taming of the Shrew'. It was written in 1593. In this passage, a woman called Katharina defends and believes in her husband's sexist vision of women, even though she has been mistreated by him.
The first thing to notice is the use of ‘thy’, ‘thou’ and ‘thee’. They reflect a familiarity that gives the impression women are inferior, it debases them. In itself, the enumeration of the first two verses reveals a husband is everything to his wife.
Line 1, we can read ‘Thy husband is thy lord’. It means the wife must obey her husband because he is her lord, possibly her god, which is confirmed by ‘thy life’. It not only means she should only live for him, it also suggests the husband gives her life and is also entitled to take it away from her, just as God is. In line 2, we can read ‘Thy head’. It suggests the husband thinks for her wife so she should not try to think but do as instructed. Incidentally, it may be understood that women were considered as incapable of reflection and decision-making. This is in keeping with the word “keeper” which might suggest the husband plays the role of a ‘babysitter’ because he protects her wife and controls her, he always watches her, but of course for her own good, like a babysitter would do. Then, we can read ‘one that cares for thee”, which echoes ‘thy keeper’ on line 1. Those two expressions mean that the woman should obey and should not try to defend herself because her husband will always be here to defend her. It follows that if you say to someone they should not defend themselves, then they will be weak. And if the woman is attacked when her husband is not close to her, she won’t be able to defend herself. Thus, women are maintained in a constant state of dependence.
Lines 3 and 4, we can find an image that shows how hard the husband is working for her. The passage is clearly hyperbolic and it means to show that the husband could do everything for his wife, in a sort of heroic sacrifice. But we know he won’t do that ‘for free’. That is why he wants her to obey him. In addition, insisting on the so-called difficulties of a man’s life might make women think twice before asking for their place, it is a way to show them it’s a lot more comfortable to be a woman.
Then, line 5, we can find the word ‘watch’ which has a double meaning. It first means that the husband watches his wife to protect her, but also to control her. This quote, ’the night in storms, the day in cold’, not only shows he will protect her but also, ironically, that he will control his wife whatever happens, even at night or if it is cold. (ELIOTT)
From verses 6 to 10, Kathrina explains the three duties a woman should fulfill to please her husband. These three duties are "love, fair looks, and true obedience".
"Love" means the woman should be devoted to her husband, as she is supposed to love him. Of course, one might suppose that physical love is hinted at, as much as the feeling in itself.
"Fair looks" mean that the woman must always look beautiful to please her husband’s physical desires. We can say she is more considered as an object than as a human being.
"True obedience" means the woman must behave submissively to her husband: she is considered as her servant. The word "true" emphasizes the word "obedience", therefore we can consider this duty as the most important of all three. However, if obedience is a duty or an obligation, it can hardly be “true” in the same time; obedience cannot come both from one’s heart and one’s obligation to obey. This is an important contradiction in the ideology justifying women’s submission.
These three duties, if completed will mean that Katharina will always look up to her husband. Therefore, this system in which the woman is treated as inferior will remain because the woman will believe her husband is superior.
Katharina justifies a woman should complete these three duties by saying a woman "lies at home, secure and safe" thanks to her husband. She implies a woman should feel guilty for doing nothing compared to the absolute, heroic devotion of her loving husband. Likewise, the fact all this remains “too little” leads women to feel incapable of giving their husbands the satisfaction they deserve, hence a guilt complex which guarantees their feeling of inferiority.
Line 10 can be seen as a conclusion and a summary of these three duties. It says the woman is "the subject" of her husband, "the prince". Therefore, again, she is inferior and owes him duties. (JEAN)
Awaiting Soe's publication.
Thy husband is thy lord, thy life, thy keeper,
Thy head, thy sovereign; one that cares for thee,
And for thy maintenance commits his body
To painful labour both by sea and land,
To watch the night in storms, the day in cold,
Whilst thou liest warm at home, secure and safe;
And craves no other tribute at thy hands
But love, fair looks and true obedience;
Too little payment for so great a debt.
Such duty as the subject owes the prince
Even such a woman oweth to her husband (...)
I am ashamed that women are so simple
To offer war where they should kneel for peace;
Or seek for rule, supremacy and sway,
When they are bound to serve, love and obey.
William Shakespeare 1593.
Main guideline for your group work and oral presentation: explore the different ways this passage conveys the sense of women's supposed inferiority at the time of the play.
Starting line 8, the lexical field of ''light'' is massively used by the poet with “radiance”, “bright”, “splendour” and “glory”; these expressions symbolize the perfect happiness of his childhood days. However, such expressions as ''once”, “for ever taken” or “nothing can bring back” make the reader nostalgic about the distant past , it implies that happiness , joy , hope is gone , clearly something wonderful has come to an end. As one goes through this cruel realization that happy days are gone by, one might feel totally depressed, desperate, heart-broken, distressed / disheartened.
Verse 8 is a turning point in so far as ‘‘what though'' and “though” make the reader feel like the poet doesn't care , as if it did not matter to him that everything was lost. The truth to the matter is that the poet isn't worried anymore which also brings us to verses 12-15 where we read ''we will grieve not” which not only means that the poet won't grieve but also that he refuses to feel sorry for himself. With the final position of the negation the poet's determination not to grieve is thrown / brought to light, it clearly emphasizes his determination to hold on to his happiness. The question is to know where he gets this will power, this energy after so many dark thoughts going through his mind. This “strength” comes from the good memories that “remain behind”, they are neither lost nor forgotten! Interestingly, the word ‘‘remain’’ suggests these moments are bound to be left behind and can't be retrieved but in the same time, one may understand that if they “remain” there, they haven’t disappeared and can thereby be retrieved if we try.
Earlier in the poem, the message was that the heart and mind can help people be reunited even when separated (“we in thought will join your throng”), now it seems that the mind has the power to bring memories back to life, to reunite the poet with his childhood days and to make him happy again.
The final verses convey the same message. “Sympathy” evokes feelings and emotions shared by a community of people and the adjective “primal” may be an allusion to the early feelings and emotions experienced when we are children and that never really disappear, as they are a light that never dims (Zlatan).
The conclusion could be that happy memories do not have to be a temporary feeling bound to fade away as we grow older with time. As long as our memories live, they will be part of us, they are not just the past, but also the present and the future. They will always exist and will always give us the energy we need to carry on. Of course, this idea is not very new in itself, but the way Wordsworth puts it in this passage is just pure brilliance.
Posted by Dorington, completed by me.
TEST FRIDAY 28 SEPT, on the analysis of a different poem but with the same theme(s)
The main idea in verses 4 to 7 of “Intimations of Immortality” is that the communication between kids and nature that was brought to light verse 1 with “ye birds” is growing tighter and more intense.
Verse 4 talks about the unity of a group composed of human kids and lambs, who represent nature. For example, “we”, “join” and “throng” refer to this strongly united group who seems to be together in real life. Communication grows into communion. However, this verse also contains the words “in thought” that change the meaning of the sentence. Indeed, this group is not united in a physical way, but in a psychological way, that means the members think about the rest of the group without being with it. It’s only a virtual communication in the head of the kids, the objective of which is to reassure, comfort and confide in them as if they were all together with no separation. The mind has the power to bridge all distances.
Nature is also showed as a human being with a “heart” able to communicate with humans, feel, have energy and so live : in a way, there is some humanity in nature. This can be the justification of this intense communication between the two biological groups and makes emotion very strong. Indeed, the “heart” is showed as a sixth sense that can transcend, surpass or even replace the five others which thereby become unnecessary as it allows one to feel everything. This is a totally romantic interpretation, in the sense that the romantic poet generally views nature as his purely spiritual equal.
Finally, this passage has an interesting musicality and rhythm that make it sounds like a song; for example, we can notice an alternation of the stressed and unstressed syllables (“WE in THOUGHT will JOIN your THRONG”). It creates a perfect harmony showing the poet’s impressive and balanced relation with nature. The happiness of life is showed by repetitions, short words and stresses at the end of the verses which all create an upbeat rhythm and allow the reader to imagine a scene in which lambs are jumping and people dancing. These writing methods make us think about energy and movement, which together mean life.
Posted by Nael
Recap of how we analyzed verses 1-3 of the extract of the poem "Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood”, by W. Wordsworth.
(Teacher’s corrections & additions in bold type)
PLEASE COPY THIS IN YOU EXCERCISE BOOKS
Among these three verses we have found a common general idea: it all evokes childhood, its purity and its innocence.
In verses 1 and 2, the triple occurrence of «sing» combined with «joyous song» introduces the poem as happy and carefree. It also gives the poem a lyrical tone. Naturally, this music suggests a celebration is under way. The words "lambs" and "birds" can evoke childhood, innocence, and purity, as well as the rebirth of life and of nature. Such might be the things celebrated by the poet.
"Ye birds" shows a tight connection between the poet and the birds, but also between him and nature as a whole as well. The birds could be friends of the poet, it is a possible personification. The expression "young lambs" is a redundancy: it alludes to the fact the lambs are even younger and echoes the “early childhood” mentioned in the title. The poet wishes to go as far back in time as possible, arguably because the younger we are, the more innocent we are.
"Let the young lamb" evokes freedom, as if barriers and obstacles were destroyed. In parallel, "bound" suggests energy and movement: it alludes to life. No life is really possible without freedom of movement
Verse 3, "As to the tabor's sound" evokes music and celebration. However, the word “as” indicates there is no tabor actually being played: there is no need of music so to a certain degree they are the music or the music is so "intense" that it becomes a feeling. For the poet and for many people, nature is a music that gives them a path to follow. (Camille)
sent by Hippolyte
Presentation of what will be done this year.
Group work method(s) briefly explained. Presentation of this blog and of how it will be used.
Text one handed out, as an introduction to what is required to comment upon a work of literary quality.
Random ideas and interpretations suggested by the class, recap to come shortly.